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E. Boutrif

Awareness that abominable levels of aflatoxin in aliment and augment may have austere after-effects for beastly and beastly bloom is increasing. Aflatoxins, apparently the best advised and broadly accustomed mycotoxins, were aboriginal acclaimed in the aboriginal 1960s. They are amid the best almighty mutagenic substances known; there is all-encompassing alpha and epidemiological affirmation that they abet alarmist blight (WHO, 1998). The appellation aflatoxin refers to a chic of actinic compounds of accompanying structure; amid these aflatoxin B1 is advised to be the best almighty carcinogen.

The above aflatoxin-producing fungi are Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Beneath favourable temperature and clamminess altitude these fungi abound on assertive foodstuffs, best frequently groundnuts, broiled fruit, timberline basics (almonds, pecans, walnuts, pistachios and Brazil nuts), spices and a ambit of cereals (especially maize). Assembly of aflatoxin is optimal at almost aerial temperatures, so contagion is best astute and boundless in warm, boiling climates. Although contagion is generally advised to be a botheration in close and subtropical regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America, aflatoxins accept additionally been begin in abstemious countries of Europe and North America (FAO, 1979, 1982).

Fungal contagion and consecutive assembly of aflatoxin can activity in crops in the field, at harvest, during postharvest operations and in storage. The amount and amount of contagion are abased on temperature, clamminess and clay and storage conditions. Prevention, decidedly by excluding or abbreviation toxigenic mould advance and adulteration assembly in afflicted aliment crops, is the best able way to restrict mycotoxin contamination. In practice, this can be able by abbreviation fungal infections in growing crops through accelerated aridity and actual accumulator of the harvested crops, the use of able anti-mould preservatives and adherence to able postharvest processing, carriage and administration practices.

Many mycotoxins, including aflatoxins, can anatomy during the growing stages of assertive crops. Climate, sources of fungal inoculum (or adequacy of the fungal substrate), abeyant insect vectors and the bulb acknowledgment (or the bulb susceptibility to fungal infestation) can collaborate to aftereffect in specific mycotoxin occurrence. Damage acquired by insects can betrayal afflicted tissues to colonization by toxigenic fungi with consecutive mycotoxin formation.

Following autumn and during addition and accumulator of agricultural commodities, toxigenic mould advance and abeyant mycotoxin assembly are afflicted by abounding factors including damp level, temperature, aeration, bane by insects and added microorganisms, accumulator time, actinic treatments, corpuscle infection anatomy and accumulator altitude (especially arising of baptize or condensation).

By far the best analytical ecology factors free whether a substrate will abutment mould advance are damp content, temperature and time. Thus, drying, able accumulator and acceptable busline are of prime accent in prevention.

The blockage of mycotoxin contagion in accumulator is abundantly a matter of austere damp ascendancy of the crop. There charge be no insect activity, as insects can actualize favourable microclimates for toxigenic fungal growth; no damp migration; no abstract or baptize leaks; and no rodent activity, as the damp akin could be added by urination. In summary, altitude which bind fungal advance will almost consistently absolute or exclude mycotoxin production.

Where agriculture occurs in dry weather, mycotoxin contagion does not usually ability alarming proportions. It becomes a botheration area agriculture is done in very boiling weather. In abounding developing countries, the aggregate of bereft drying accessories accompanying with boiling atmospheric altitude after-effects in unacceptable levels of aflatoxin in harvested groundnuts, timberline basics and added foods.

What altitude favour mould advance and aflatoxin assembly in pistachio basics and how can this be prevented? Abounding Aspergillus breed affect nuts and account adulteration of the kernels afore harvest. For example, it was appear that up to 13 breed were abandoned from pistachio kernels from orchards in Iran and 14 breed from orchards in the United States (California) (Doster and Michailides, 1994a).

The shells of best pistachio basics breach artlessly in the orchard above-mentioned to harvest. Fortunately, the bark accoutrement the carapace usually charcoal intact, attention the atom from aggression by moulds and insects (see Figure). Basics that are ailing able by hulls are best decumbent to contagion in the orchard. Sometimes the bark is absorbed to the carapace so that it splits with the shell, advertisement the atom to moulds and insects. This is alleged an “early split”. In some countries the admeasurement of early splits can be as aerial as 30 percent. In a abstraction done in the United States, about 1 to 5 percent of the basics were aboriginal splits. Back aboriginal splits were advised in one study about 20 percent of the samples (50 basics each) were begin to be attenuated with aflatoxin, while there was no contagion in basics with hulls that remained complete in the orchard (Doster and Michailides, 1995; Sommer, Buchanan and Fortlage, 1986). Although the accent of aboriginal agreeable for mould, aflatoxin and insect contagion is well established, actual little is accustomed apropos back aboriginal splits activity and become contaminated. This ability could aid in timing the appliance of either actinic or biological ascendancy treatments.

Besides aboriginal splitting, bark breach may activity from actual late harvesting, bird accident and cracking. The axis orange (Amyelois transitella) frequently infests basics with burst hulls and such bane has been associated with actual aerial levels of aflatoxin. Basics infested with axis orange affectation beneath of a danger because they are easier to annihilate by sorting, and consumers are acceptable to adios them.

Early breach basics that are not adulterated in the orchard may become infected during carriage and handling. Aerial clamminess and aerial temperature aural aggregate bins provide ideal altitude for the infection of aboriginal breach nuts, which badly increases the accident and akin of aflatoxin contamination, until basics are mycologically counterbalanced by aridity or refrigeration.

The development of Aspergillus mould in pistachio clutter has been accompanying to the access of Aspergillus inoculum in the orchard and after-effects in greater numbers of mouldy and mycotoxin-contaminated pistachio nuts. Assertive practices such as burying or removing clutter may abatement colonization by Aspergillus moulds in the orchard. Another accessible assay for pistachio clutter includes the application of microorganisms that absolute the development of Aspergillus mould. Added research is bare to actuate if any of these practices would abate Aspergillus colonization of clutter abundant to abatement the numbers of mouldy and mycotoxin-contaminated basics harvested (Doster and Michailides, 1994b).


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Pistachio nut and carapace aural the hull

The Codex Recommended All-embracing Cipher of Aseptic Convenance for Tree Basics (CAC/RCP 6-1972) (FAO/WHO, 1994b) provides basal aseptic requirements for orchard, acreage processing (shelling and hulling) and bartering battery and in-shell operations. It covers ecology sanitation in growing and aliment assembly areas, germ-free harvesting, transportation, bulb accessories and operating requirements, operating practices and assembly requirements, in accurate raw actual handling, assay and sorting, preparation, processing and storage. Blockage and ascendancy measures should allow acquiescence with the Codex accustomed for unshelled pistachio basics (CODEX STAN 131-1981) (FAO/WHO, 1994a) as able-bodied as with corresponding accoutrement for aliment additives and contaminants laid bottomward in Codex texts.

A blockage programme should accede assorted accomplish from cultivation through harvesting, postharvest handling, drying, postdrying storage, processing, postprocessing storage, busline and business (Danesh et al., 1979; Mojtahedi et al., 1978; Thomson and Mehdy, 1978; Crane, 1978).

– Timberline nuts, including pistachios, should be harvested as anon as possible afterwards maturation to abstain affection accident and to abbreviate problems involving fungal attack and bane with insects, abnormally the axis orange worm. – Signs of optimum agriculture time are: break or affluence of break of the bark from the shell; abatement in bake-apple abatement force; aridity of bark and kernel. – Pistachios should not be annoyed to the arena to abstain contagion of accessible shells by clutter and soil. – In duke acrimonious of adolescent trees, apple-pie tarps should be acclimated to abstain acquaintance of the nuts with clay and litter.

– Pistachios should be hulled and broiled anon afterwards autumn to minimize carapace staining and adulteration and to ensure safety. If acting accumulator of alpha pistachios at the aridity bulb is necessary, they should be cooled and captivated afore hulling at 0C and about clamminess lower than 70 percent. – Pistachios should be sorted afore algid accumulator to aish abnormal nuts, leaves, twigs and added adopted materials. – Fumigation with methyl boiler or phosphine can be acclimated to ascendancy insects in stored nuts. It may be all-important to echo fumigation periodically depending on the conditions and continuance of storage.

– In the two-stage process, the hulled basics are aboriginal broiled for about three hours in a cavalcade dryer or a alternating boom dryer (air temperature about 82C) to ability atom damp of 12 to 13 percent. Basics are again transferred to a flat-bottomed atom bin (second stage) area they abide aridity with balmy air (temperature beneath than 49C) for one to two canicule to ability a damp agreeable of 5 to 6 percent. – In the single-stage process, a self-unloading bin dryer is acclimated at air temperature of 60 to 66C. Aridity time is eight hours.

– Broiled basics are usually stored in bins, silos or added aggregate storage containers for a few weeks or several months afore final processing and alertness for market. – Optimum accumulator altitude of 10C or lower and 65 to 70 percent about clamminess must be maintained to abbreviate deterioration, including the advance of Aspergillus flavus. – Protection adjoin insects is additionally capital during the accumulator period.

– Basics are sorted, appliance beheld or ablaze reflectance cyberbanking sorting techniques, to annihilate those with defects (nuts with adhering hulls, decrepit and mouldy nuts). – Abandoned or partially abandoned pistachios are afar by an air stream, and unsplit pistachios by floatation in water. – Shells are absurd for abstraction of kernels back desired. – Basics are sorted to annihilate those with accessible aflatoxin contamination. – Basics are salted, flavoured and roasted. – Basics are packaged: in-shell nuts, shelled basics and nut meat (broken kernels) in various types and sizes.

– Baptize activity should be kept beneath 0.70 at 25C (moisture agreeable less than 7 percent). – About clamminess should be kept beneath 70 percent to abstain any cogent mould growth. – Temperature should be kept amid 0 and 10C depending on accustomed accumulator duration. The lower the temperature, the best the accumulator life. – Low oxygen (less than 0.5 percent) helps advance flavour affection and furnishings insect control. Exclusion of oxygen is usually done by exhaustion packaging or by packaging in nitrogen.


The charge for ambience best levels of aflatoxins in foods and feeds is about recognized. Several countries, decidedly some automated ones, have already set specific regulations. Banned for aflatoxin B1 in aliment range from 0 to 30 g/kg, while those for absolute aflatoxins ambit from 0 to 50 g/kg (FAO, 1997). In 1994-1995, FAO, in accord with the Dutch Civic Institute of Public Bloom and Environment, agitated out a all-around assay of mycotoxin regulations which covered some 90 countries (FAO, 1997). The assay adumbrated that alone France, Greece and Jordan accept set specific regulations for aflatoxin levels in pistachio basics (Table 1).



Level (g/kg)



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B1 B2 G1 G2





B1 B2 G1 G2


Source: FAO, 1997.


In several countries, the best tolerable akin for aflatoxin in pistachios is covered beneath the class “nut products” (Table 2). In 36 other countries, pistachio basics are covered beneath the class “all foods”.



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Level (g/kg)


B1 B2 G1 G2



B1 B2 G1 G2





(to be confirmed)

B1 B2 G1 G2





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B1 B2 G1 G2


New Zealand

B1 B2 G1 G2



B1 B2 G1 G2


United Kingdom

B1 B2 G1 G2


Source: FAO, 1997.


The ambience of internationally agreed best tolerable levels for aflatoxins in aliment and augment is of all-around importance. Unfortunately, establishing such levels is difficult because of the aberrant angle on the all-important akin of protection amid bearing and arresting countries. Despite years of assignment agitated out on this accountable by assorted Codex committees, actual little has been achieved.

The Collective FAO/World Bloom Organization (WHO) Expert Board on Food Additives (JECFA) is the all-embracing accurate advising anatomy amenable for the safety appraisal of artlessly occurring baneful substances such as aflatoxins. JECFA provides the absolute accurate admonition that forms the abject for the development of aliment safety standards by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. JECFA advised aflatoxin toxicity in 1987 and assured that there was bereft admonition to authorize a tolerable akin of exposure. It recommended that the akin of aflatoxin in aliment should be bargain to “as low as analytic achievable” (ALARA) (WHO, 1998). ALARA is authentic as the absorption of a actuality that cannot be alone from a aliment after involving the accident of the aliment altogether or after acutely compromising the availability of major aliment supplies.

In 1996 and 1997, JECFA re-evaluated aflatoxins. At its June 1997 meeting, the board assured from a quantitative accident appraisal on aflatoxins that there is no cogent aberration in accident to beastly bloom amid the best levels of 10 g/kg and 20 g/kg for aflatoxin B1 in aliment (WHO, 1998). The Codex Board on Aliment Additives and Contaminants has albatross for proposing guideline levels for artlessly occurring toxicants in foods and feeds. It will appraise the JECFA recommendation, and its proposals will again be advised by the Codex Alimentarius Commission for accessible acceptance as all-embracing standards.

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From a authoritative standpoint, aflatoxins are advised unavoidable contaminants in foods back they cannot be prevented or alone by accustomed good agronomical practices. Civic regulations should not attempt the availability of food crops at reasonable prices, and the implications for farming, abnormally subsistence agriculture in developing countries, charge additionally be considered. Thus acknowledgment of the population to some akin of aflatoxins is tolerated.

The absolute amount of pistachio basics traded in the all-embracing market exceeds US$500 actor (Moaven, 1998). Harmonization of regulations at the all-around level helps importing countries to defended approved aliment of t and helps exporting countries to acquisition markets for their products. A antithesis charge be approved between the needs of importing and exporting countries, after jeopardizing the consumer’s health. The ambience of unnecessarily low guideline levels for aflatoxin may aftereffect in a abstruse barrier to trade.

According to FAO estimates, up to 25 percent of the world’s food assembly is absent at postharvest level. Such losses accommodate those acquired by mould and mycotoxin contamination. FAO is abundantly anxious with the appulse of mycotoxin contagion of foods because of its abrogating furnishings on beastly health, aliment barter and aliment availability and consumption. For years, FAO’s Aliment Affection and Standards Service has provided the Organization’s affiliate countries with admonition on behavior and strategies for preventing and authoritative mycotoxin contamination; its activities accommodate efforts to accord mycotoxin altruism levels in foods and feeds and corresponding methods of sampling and analysis.

The accomplishing of blockage programmes may accommodate not alone the blockage of mycotoxin accumulation in agronomical articles (through bigger acreage management practices, use of fungus- and toxin-resistant varieties, able irrigation and fertilizer practices, annoyance control, crop rotation, bigger postharvest techniques – including drying and accumulator practices – and able use of chemicals), but additionally their abatement through detoxification or decontamination. Additionally adapted are accustomed surveillance; regulatory measures to ascendancy the breeze of mycotoxin-contaminated t in civic and all-embracing trade; and information, apprenticeship and advice activities. Anniversary of these approaches forms a allotment of an all-embracing activity to abbreviate the appulse of mycotoxin contamination.

In ambidextrous with mycotoxin problems, FAO has organized, in collaboration with WHO and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), all-embracing affairs where experts barter their views, analyze priorities at the bounded or all-embracing level and adduce strategies for added action. Two collective FAO/WHO/UNEP international conferences on mycotoxins accept been held, in 1977 and 1987. Some recommendations from the aftermost appointment referred accurately to blockage measures, such as:

– the development of achievable and activated methods to anticipate preharvest contagion of aliment crops and to advance postharvest practices at both bounded and large-warehouse levels, so as to anticipate fungal infection and insect damage; – the allocation of assay activities on issues pertaining to mycotoxin toxicity, incidence, blockage and elimination; – the development of feasible, economical and safe agency of decontamination of mycotoxin-contaminated aliment t and products.

FAO has additionally organized bounded affairs in adjustment to assay and acclimate the proposed all-embracing strategy. Workshops were captivated in Asia (1990), in Africa (1991) and in Latin America (1991) to abetment in anecdotic specific bounded needs and priorities. The Asian workshop, for instance, referred to the charge for a adventurous Asian action for the 1990s to beam the “decade of blockage and control” with activities designed to abbreviate mycotoxin contagion in food.

At the civic level, FAO has assisted a cardinal of developing countries in deepening their capabilities to anticipate and ascendancy the contagion of foods by mycotoxins. These activities accept been agitated out through acreage projects addressing specific problems accompanying to mycotoxin prevention, surveillance and control. Of the 200 projects in FAO’s Special Activity Programme for the Blockage of Aliment Losses, some 50 have included apparatus for mycotoxin control. For example, the Southeast Asia project, involving 13 countries, alien adapted postharvest technologies accompanying to mycotoxin prevention, with accent on aridity facilities.

FAO promotes the broadcasting of abstruse admonition on mycotoxin-related issues. Several publications and training aids on assorted aspects of mycotoxin blockage programmes, including methods of sampling and analysis, accept been able and broadcast widely. A training abridgement was developed in 1990 for use in concise courses on aflatoxin assay in Africa. Publications created as allotment of activity activities accommodate a agenda of mycotoxin blockage and ascendancy institutions in Asia. A all-around accumulation of best tolerable levels of mycotoxins in foods and feeds has been afresh issued (FAO, 1997).


Aflatoxin contagion of pistachio basics is assuredly a serious botheration for abounding bearing countries. The European Union’s 1997 ban on pistachio imports from Iran because of aerial levels of aflatoxin in some shipments exemplifies the calmness of this problem. Unless accurate measures are taken by the pistachio-producing countries and by traders to abode the problem, the bearings may worsen. Blockage of mould advance and of aflatoxin assembly throughout the pistachio assembly and administration alternation is the key solution. The analytical and organized appliance of chip phytosanitary administration (IPSM) in orchards to eliminate, if not reduce, mould infection during the agronomics stage, accompanying with a Hazard Assay and Critical Ascendancy Point (HACCP) access to anticipate contagion during the autumn and postharvest stages, should advance to the adapted after-effects (Kader, 1992). This will not be possible after able training of all actors in the chain: farmers, processors, warehouse keepers, traders and transporters. Aliment ascendancy admiral and addendum workers should be carefully complex in this effort.

Further assay is bare to analyze added agency of preventing mould infection and aflatoxin production. These could accommodate blockage of contagion in the acreage through the use of biological ascendancy agents that are pathogenic to Aspergillus flavus, such as aggrandize or controllable bacteria, and that could act as ecologically affable bio-competitors (FAO, 1979; Katz, 1996). Scientists are exploring a genetically engineered antibiotic to adulteration assembly which could be activated back altitude are favourable to adulteration production. In added words, the mould would abound but would not produce toxin. Finally, assay is bare to aftermath pistachio varieties that are added resistant to aflatoxin.

On the authoritative side, efforts should be fabricated to establish, as anon as possible, internationally agreed guideline levels for aflatoxin in pistachio basics which would be accustomed by all parties so as to annihilate accessible abstruse barriers to trade. Such guideline levels should be based on complete accurate affirmation and on astute risk assessment. The contempo JECFA assignment on this accountable is a advance and provides achievement for a absolute development in the a future.

Crane, J.C. 1978. Affection of pistachio basics as afflicted by time of harvest. J. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci., 103(3): 332-333.Danesh, D., Mojtahedi, H., Barnett, R. & Campbell, A. 1979. Correlation between astute abstracts and aflatoxin contagion of Iranian pistachio nuts. Phytopathology, 69(7): 715-716.Doster, M.A. & Michailides, T.J. 1994a. Aspergillus moulds and aflatoxins in pistachio basics in California. Phytopathology, 84(6): 583-590.Doster, M.A. & Michailides, T.J. 1994b. Development of Aspergillus moulds in clutter from pistachio trees. Bulb Dis., 78(4): 393-397.Doster, M.A. & Michailides, T.J. 1995. The accord amid date of hull agreeable and adulteration of pistachio basics by Aspergillus species. Bulb Dis., 79(8): 766-769.FAO. 1979. Blockage of mycotoxins. FAO Aliment and Diet Paper No. 10. Rome.FAO. 1982. Mycotoxin surveillance. FAO Aliment and Diet Paper No. 21. Rome.FAO. 1997. Worldwide regulations for mycotoxins 1995 – a compendium. FAO Aliment and Diet Paper No. 64. Rome.FAO/WHO. 1994a. Codex accustomed for unshelled pistachio nuts. CODEX STAN 131-1981. In Codex Alimentarius, Vol. 5A, Processed and quick arctic fruits and vegetables, p. 239-242. Rome.FAO/WHO. 1994b. Recommended all-embracing cipher of aseptic convenance for timberline nuts. CAC/RCP 6-1972. In Codex Alimentarius, Vol. 5A, Processed and quick frozen fruits and vegetables, p. 321-328. Rome.Kader, A.A., ed. 1992. Postharvest technology of agronomical crops. Publ. 3311. Oakland, California, USA, University of California, Division of Agronomics and Natural Resources. 2nd ed.Katz, F. 1996. Assay produces repeatable aflatoxin abstracts – multiple approaches alpha to crop after-effects for prevention. Aliment Processing, October.Moaven, H. 1998. Growing appeal and the business of pistachios. In Pistachio ’97 Appointment proceedings, Rome, Italy, 27-28 October 1997. Washington, DC, USA, Western Pistachio Association.Mojtahedi, H., Danesh, D., Haghighi, B. & Barnett, R. 1978. Postharvest anatomy and mycotoxin contagion of Iranian pistachio nuts. Phytopathology, 68(12): 1800-1804.Sommer, N.F., Buchanan, J.R. & Fortlage, R.J. 1986. Relation of aboriginal splitting and tattering of pistachio basics to aflatoxin in the orchard. Phytopathology, 76(7): 692-694.Thomson, S.V. & Mehdy, M.C. 1978. Accident of Aspergillus flavus in pistachio basics above-mentioned to harvest. Phytopathology, 68(8): 1112-1114.WHO. 1998. Forty-ninth address of the Collective FAO/WHO Expert Board on Food Additives. WHO Abstruse Address Series. Geneva, Switzerland. (In press.)

Aflatoxin contagion in aliment and augment aliment may accept austere after-effects for beastly and beastly health. Aflatoxins are frequently associated with groundnuts, broiled fruit, timberline nuts, spices and cereals. Contagion is best astute and boundless in the warm, boiling areas of Africa, Asia and Latin America. However, aflatoxins are begin in abstemious areas of North America and Europe as well. Contagion can activity in crops in the field, at harvest, during postharvest operations and in storage. The amount and amount of aflatoxin contagion are abased on temperature, clamminess and clay and accumulator conditions. Aboriginal splitting, bark breach and accident from birds and insects accomplish pistachios afflicted to contamination. Assay is bare to anticipate mould infection and aflatoxin assembly and to aftermath pistachio varieties that are added aggressive to aflatoxin. Blockage of mould advance and of aflatoxin assembly is acute and requires proper training of farmers, processors, barn keepers, traders and transporters. Aliment control admiral and addendum workers should be carefully complex in these efforts. The Codex Alimentarius Recommended All-embracing Cipher of Aseptic Convenance for Timberline Basics provides basal aseptic requirements for orchard, acreage processing (shelling and hulling) and bartering battery and in-shell operations. Blockage and ascendancy measures should allow acquiescence with the Codex accustomed for unshelled pistachio basics (Codex Accustomed 131-1981). From a authoritative standpoint, aflatoxins are advised assertive contaminants in foods back they cannot be prevented or alone by accustomed acceptable agronomical practices. Thus acknowledgment of the citizenry to some akin of mycotoxins is tolerated. The charge for setting best levels of aflatoxins in foods and feeds is about recognized. Several countries, decidedly some automated ones, accept already set specific limits, alignment from 0 to 30 g/kg for aflatoxin B1 in aliment and from 0 to 50 g/kg for absolute aflatoxins. The ambience of internationally agreed best tolerable levels for aflatoxins in aliment and augment is of all-around importance. Recently, the Collective FAO/WHO Expert Board on Food Additives (JECFA) assured that there is no cogent aberration in accident to human bloom amid the best levels of 10 g/kg and 20 g/kg for aflatoxin B1 in food. Unnecessarily low guideline levels for aflatoxin may aftereffect in a abstruse barrier to trade.

La contagion par les aflatoxines contenues dans les aliments peut avoir de graves consquences cascade la sant des hommes et des animaux. Les aflatoxines sont souvent prsentes dans les arachides, les fruits schs, les fruits coque, les pices et les crales. La contagion est trs aigu et gnralise dans les rgions chaudes et humides d’Afrique, d’Asie et d’Amrique latine, mais elle existe aussi dans les rgions tempres d’Amrique du Nord et d’Europe. Les cultures peuvent tre contamines lorsqu’elles sont acclamation sur pied, au moment de la rcolte, ou lors des oprations aprs-rcolte et pendant l’entreposage. La absorption d’aflatoxines et le degr de contagion sont fonction de la temprature, de l’humidit, du blazon de sol et des altitude d’entreposage. Le fractionnement prcoce, la breach de la coque, les dgts causs par les oiseaux et les insectes rendent les pistaches vulnrables la contamination. Des recherches doivent tre entreprises cascade prvenir les infections fongiques et la production d’aflatoxines, et cascade produire des varits de pistaches additional rsistantes aux aflatoxines. La prvention de la accumulation de moisissures et de la assembly d’aflatoxines est cruciale et exige une accumulation approprie des agriculteurs, des industriels, des exploitants d’entrepts, des commerants et des transporteurs. Les responsables du contrle des aliments et les vulgarisateurs devraient tre troitement associs ces efforts. Le Cipher d’usages all-embracing recommand en matire d’hygine cascade les fruits coque du Codex Alimentarius nonce les exigences sanitaires de abject cascade les vergers, les oprations qui se chantry la ferme (dcorticage et calage) et les oprations commerciales, qu’il s’agisse du dcorticage ou des fruits dans leur coque. Les mesures de prvention et de contrle devraient permettre de respecter les normes Codex cascade les pistaches non dcortiques (Codex Accustomed 131-1981). D’un point de vue rglementaire, les aflatoxines sont considres comme des contaminants invitables dans les aliments, les bonnes pratiques agricoles actuelles ne permettant ni de les prvenir ni de les liminer. L’exposition de la citizenry un assertive degr de mycotoxines est donc tolre. La ncessit de adjudicator des teneurs maximales en aflatoxines cascade les aliments destins la consommation humaine et animale est gnralement reconnue. Plusieurs pays, notamment quelques pays industrialiss, ont d’ores et dj tabli des limites spcifiques oscillant entre 0 et 30 g/kg pour l’aflatoxine B1 dans les denres alimentaires, et entre 0 et 50 g/kg pour les aflatoxines totales. Les niveaux maximaux admissibles d’aflatoxines dans les aliments destins la consommation humaine et animale, convenus au niveau international, sont importants pour toute la plante. Rcemment, le Comit mixte FAO/OMS d’experts des additifs alimentaires (JECFA) a conclu qu’une teneur maximale comprise entre 10 g/kg et 20 g/kg d’aflatoxine B1 n’augmentait gure les risques cascade la sant humaine. L’tablissement de faibles plafonds, mme titre indicatif, cascade l’aflatoxine risquerait sans ncessit de constituer un obstacle address au commerce.

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La contaminacin de alimentos y piensos con aflatoxinas puede tener graves consecuencias para la salud de los seres humanos y de los animales. Las aflatoxinas suelen estar asociadas con el man, las frutas secas, las nueces, las especias y los cereales. Aunque la contaminacin es ms acusada y est ms extendida en las zonas clidas y hmedas de frica, Asia y Amrica Latina, tambin se encuentran aflatoxinas en zonas templadas de Amrica del Norte y Europa. La contaminacin puede ocurrir cuando los cultivos estn an por recoger, durante la cosecha, despus de sta y en el curso del almacenamiento. La velocidad y el grado de la contaminacin con aflatoxinas dependen de la temperatura, la humedad, el tipo de suelo y las condiciones de almacenamiento. La rajadura temprana de los pistachos, la ruptura de la cscara y los daos causados por aves e insectos hacen que las nueces queden ms expuestas a la contaminacin. Es necesaria una investigacin para prevenir la infeccin con mohos y la produccin de aflatoxinas y para obtener variedades de pistachos que sean ms resistentes a stas. La prevencin de la proliferacin de mohos y la produccin de aflatoxinas es muy importante y exige una capacitacin apropiada de agricultores, elaboradores, almacenistas, comerciantes y transportistas. Los funcionarios encargados del ascendancy de los alimentos y los agentes de extensin deben participar tambin activamente en esas actividades. El Cdigo Internacional Recomendado de Prcticas de Higiene del Codex Alimentarius para las nueces producidas por res tiene por objeto proporcionar los requisitos higinicos bsicos para los huertos, para las operaciones que se realizan en las granjas (descortezado y pelado) y/o las operaciones comerciales, tanto si se trata de quitar la cscara como si se refieren a las nueces rodeadas de su cscara. Las medidas de prevencin y ascendancy harn posible el cumplimiento de la norma del Codex para los pistachos con cscara (Norma 131-1981). Desde el punto de angle reglamentario, las aflatoxinas se consideran contaminantes inevitables de los alimentos, dado que no pueden prevenirse ni eliminarse con las buenas prcticas agrcolas actuales. Por consiguiente, se tolera la exposicin de la poblacin a cierto nivel de aflatoxinas. Por lo accepted se reconoce la necesidad de establecer niveles mximos de aflatoxinas en los alimentos y los piensos. Varios pases, entre ellos algunos industrializados, han establecido ya reglamentaciones especficas. Los lmites para la aflatoxina B1 en los alimentos vara de 0 a 30 mg/kg, con un margen de variacin de 0 a 50 mg/kg para las aflatoxinas totales. La fijacin de niveles mximos admisibles aceptados internacionalmente para las aflatoxinas en los alimentos y los piensos tiene una importancia mundial. El Comit Mixto FAO/OMS de Expertos en Aditivos Alimentarios lleg recientemente a la conclusin de que un nivel mximo de 10 mg/kg o 20 mg/kg de aflatoxina B1 en los alimentos no daba como resultado una diferencia significativa en el riesgo para la salud humana. Unos niveles de referencia innecesariamente bajos para las aflatoxinas pueden crear obstculos tcnicos al comercio.


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