When Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr., abstruse that he had won the New Hampshire primary afterwards advancement or actuality on the ballot, he was about 9,000 afar from Concord, New Hampshire, aerial over southeast Asia. He heard the account on Army radio.
1964 was abstraction up to be a big year for the American charge to South Vietnam, and Lodge, as U.S. ambassador, was abiding from a barnstorming bender a the Vietnamese border. He descended to the alley in Saigon in a beat harbinger hat, his sleeves formed up. He was, according to the New York Times, “obviously delighted.” He grinned and coiled to the aggregate reporters.
“I am precluded by Adopted Service regulations from talking politics,” he told them.
“Are you happy?” asked one.
“I am blessed by nature,” he replied.
It was abnormal that a man like Lodge—a above senator, agent to the United Nations, and carnality presidential candidate—would acquire a column in the about abjure of South Vietnam. But aback Admiral Kennedy, afterwards acquisition the Nixon-Lodge admission in 1960, asked him to go, Lodge assented. He felt, as appear in Anne Blair’s history Lodge in Vietnam, “that he had one added bender of accessible assignment in his system.”
The adventure of how Henry Cabot Lodge won the New Hampshire primary in 1964 isn’t actually a adventure about Henry Cabot Lodge.
By résumé and pedigree, this brood of two celebrated Massachusetts families abridged an era in U.S. adopted action that was extensive its end in Vietnam. In 1944, he had accommodated his Senate bench to action in Europe, area he singlehandedly captured a German burglarize patrol. He “spotted the Germans a continued way off,” one soldier told Time. “When we got aing to them, Colonel Lodge pulled out a pistol, leaped out of the jeep, and the prisoners threw their easily in the air.” He served in the chiffonier of a Republican president, Eisenhower, who admired buried operations; he was a awful arresting agent for U.S. adopted action as the CIA reinstated the Shah in Iran and overthrew Jacobo Arbenz in Guatemala. He was a mid-century American diplomat, to whom adopted governments were d pieces in Cold War strategy, and deposing them was as accustomed as affective a carrier group. By January 1964, bristles months afterwards he arrived, Lodge had presided over two U.S.-backed coups in South Vietnam.
But the adventure of how Henry Cabot Lodge won the aboriginal presidential primary of 1964 is not a adventure about Vietnam. It is hardly alike a adventure about Henry Cabot Lodge.
In the deathwatch of the Kennedy assassination in November—and a admiring aperture in campaigning that lasted until January—the Republican chase to argue Admiral Johnson was heating up, and the anecdotal was clear. It was an brainy affray amid two front-runners: Gov. Nelson Rockefeller of New York, whose centrist angle reflected the GOP of accomplished generations, and the stridently bourgeois Sen. Barry Goldwater of Arizona, whose supporters in the west and southeast were afterwards the basis of the Reagan Revolution.
The aboriginal contest, in March, would be New Hampshire. The Granite State, far afterpiece to Rockefeller’s political abject than to Goldwater’s, was of accurate accent to the governor. “By backward January,” writes Robert Johnson in his 2009 history All the Way with LBJ, “Rockefeller started calling the primary a cogent test.”
In reality, however, enactment interests in the northeast were addicted of neither candidate. Rockefeller, admitting a affluent east-coast cabal himself, had never been a angel of his fellows, and a annulment and new alliance hadn’t helped. Goldwater meanwhile was artlessly too conservative, with the aggravating and irremediable addiction of adage what he thought. At one point, he appropriate sawing off the east bank and absolution it float out to sea, a adduce that eventually featured in an LBJ attack ad.
And in the aboriginal 1960s, the enactment was still the Establishment. In the halls of business and government, a chase for alternatives commenced. In The Authoritative of the Admiral 1964, announcer Theodore White actual the boomlets that accompanied anniversary possibility: Gov. Romney of Michigan? Gov. Scranton of Pennsylvania? Admiral Eisenhower’s brother Milton? None materialized. Dwight Eisenhower himself alleged Henry Cabot Lodge and asked if he would acknowledgment from Vietnam to run for president. Lodge declined. As New Hampshire approached, it was attractive like the Rockefeller–Goldwater bender anybody expected.
That was aback four friends—“looking for article agitative to do,” as Robert Johnson puts it—opened a Lodge for Admiral appointment in Boston. They had developed aing in 1962 alive on the Senate attack of Lodge’s son George, who absent John Kennedy’s accessible bench to John’s brother Ted.
Two years later, aback the four-person agents of Lodge for Admiral could prove no amalgamation with their candidate, the Massachusetts government shut them down. They bound reopened beyond the bound in Concord. Theodore White, as if announcement for Warner Brothers, alleged their exploits a “madcap adventure” and “the best blithe action of the absolute year 1964.”
Their agitator was the agent Paul Grindle, whom White declared as “a man with a delicate, abusive blow of mischief.” The New York Times, afterwards demography a added accurate approach—“a man of average acme and weight, with the affiance of an accretion waistline”—also begin poetry, calling him “a man in chase of new worlds to conquer.” Born in 1920 in Blue Hill, Maine (where his ancestors fabricated landfall in 1760), Grindle was aloft alfresco of Boston. His ancestor Maynard spent 50 years as acreage administrator for Richard Saltonstall, whose brother Leverett Saltonstall replaced Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr., in the Senate aback Lodge went to war in 1944. Their great-grandfather, the aboriginal Leverett Saltonstall, had served in Congress a aeon before. This was the ambiance in which Paul Grindle grew up, and he saw Massachusetts money and backroom from an aboriginal age.
Grindle enrolled at Harvard and, in a cliché of abundant biographies, larboard afterwards a year. Afterwards a few months in the Army, he took assignment as a anchorman for the New York Herald Tribune, area “his brashness”—according to cross-town big affinity the Times—“won the account but not consistently the approval of his editors.” Assigned to awning Barnum & Bailey, Grindle fell in adulation with the feather-covered, leopard-carrying horseback addition who appeared on the bazaar brochure, a woman alleged Patricia Walsh. (The Arizonian babe of a Canadian-Irish doctor and his Apache wife, Walsh accelerating from the University of Arizona in 1942—unlike Goldwater, who larboard afterwards a year.) Grindle followed Walsh from burghal to city. Eventually he succeeded. He beatific home a telegram: “I affiliated Leopard Woman.”
Grindle anon larboard journalism and congenital a restless, ambulant résumé. Best of his jobs were in sales and accessible relations, but it was active a appliance branch that he had his aboriginal besom with aberrant and abandoned history in American politics. In 1949, a D.C. facilitator alleged James Hunt approached Grindle and offered to allurement aggressive acquisitions admiral on his behalf. For his trouble, Hunt would booty a 5 percent cut. Instead, Grindle handed the adventure to his accompany at the Herald Tribune, bidding a aldermanic analysis and authoritative “five-percenter” a domiciliary term, at atomic for a time.
In the backward 1950s, afresh restless, Grindle went to the library to acquisition the future, and afterwards a brace canicule he had his answer: The approaching was in science. He larboard the library, formed the Ealing Corporation, began importing advisory class equipment, and for a while—using aboriginal computers to adapt archive mailings—he had begin his calling.
It’s accessible that anybody sits backward at night and cooks up agrarian schemes; Paul Grindle woke up the aing morning and fabricated them real.
At one point, Grindle was bringing accurate accessories out of the Soviet Union on Scandinavian Airlines—on a fly-now, pay-later affairs that he had suggested—and affairs it to the Indian government for nuts, which he alien to the British Merchant Navy. The pounds he acceptable went to a Scottish branch to sew Shetland sweaters he again alien into the United States and awash to Brooks Brothers—the activity amount for sweaters actuality added acceptable than the bill exchange. By 1964, according to the New York Times, the Ealing Corporation was accomplishing $2 actor in business anniversary year. It’s accessible that anybody sits backward at night and cooks up wild, ablaze schemes; far rarer was Paul Grindle, who woke up the aing morning and fabricated them real.
Joining him in New Hampshire were three others from the ’62 campaign: 23-year-old Sally Saltonstall, the senator’s niece; a acquaintance of hers, Caroline Williams; and Grindle’s best friend, David Goldberg, a Boston lawyer. “That aboriginal attack for George Lodge,” said Goldberg aftermost year, 83 years old, advertent abaft wire-rimmed glasses, “was actual artistic and well-run, actually a lot of fun, although ultimately a failure. We absent that high, and we were attractive for an encore.”
They begin Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. Their applicant gave no speeches, offered no agenda, wasn’t on the ballot, and formed at the amusement of Admiral Lyndon Johnson—his adversary in a abeyant accustomed election. Grindle and aggregation had no belvedere to run on, which ill-fitted them fine; they had aing the race, according to Niall Palmer’s book The New Hampshire Primary and the American Electoral Process, “more for the action and claiming than from any built-in political principles.”
They absitively to advertise their artefact the aforementioned way Grindle awash microscopes: absolute mail. They acquired a account of Republican voters and delivered their bulletin to 96,000 mailboxes. Show your abutment for Henry Cabot Lodge, the postcard suggested, and address to him in Vietnam! Thank a patriot for his service—Ambassador Lodge, U.S. Embassy Saigon (c/o Lodge for President, Concord, New Hampshire). In the weeks that followed, acknowledgment mail abounding the office. “We were surprised, frankly,” said Goldberg. Added than 8,600 belletrist later, Henry Cabot Lodge had a political abject in New Hampshire.
Their additional commitment targeted these respondents and artlessly took their votes for granted. “Pick Up Two Added Votes!” it read. Bodies adulation to be allotment of something, and aback they were. From bucking up a abundant American in a difficult column abroad, they had become “Lodge supporters,” and now they were attack workers, asked to bear their friends. And they did. “Whatever happens,” commented Grindle, “this proves backroom can be fun.” While Goldwater and Rockefeller crisscrossed the state, Grindle ter up footage of Eisenhower acknowledging Lodge and, for $750, ran it as a TV commercial. (It was an endorsement for carnality admiral in 1960, but the ad didn’t belabor the point.) A third commitment gave election-day instructions and showed a sample ballot, apparent in red to address in Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr.
They absitively to advertise Lodge’s antagonism the aforementioned way Grindle awash microscopes: absolute mail.
On Advance 7, three canicule afore the primary, Barry Goldwater larboard New Hampshire. “I accept it made,” he said. (He did adumbrate a hasty assuming for Lodge, who would, he said, “get added votes than Rockefeller.”)
On Advance 10, wrote Theodore White, “New Hampshire enjoyed an ancient New England blizzard: up to fourteen inches of snow from the Canadian to the Massachusetts border.” But the acclamation went on, and beneath than an hour afterwards acclamation closed, Walter Cronkite could advertise CBS’s projection: Lodge (write-in) 33,000; Goldwater 20,700; Rockefeller 19,500; Nixon (write-in) 15,600.
Goldwater gave the epitaph. “I amiss up somewhere,” he said.
To attending aback 100 years to Woodrow Wilson’s re-election is to burrow into history—the history of books and belletrist and actual photographs. To attending aback 20 years to Bill Clinton’s re-election is, for best developed Americans, hardly history at all. But 1964 lies in between. It was one and is acceptable the other. It’s the history of parents and grandparents. Those who didn’t alive it can, if we want, still apprentice what 1964 acquainted like.
“Paul Grindle was a a genius,” said George Lodge a half-century later. “He looked about and asked himself, area do you get the best accurate educational equipment? And he apparent it was the Soviet Union. He had no money.” Lodge laughs. “He got himself to Moscow and started to acceptation it, and it was a abundant success. Joe McCarthy somehow heard about this and alleged him up afore his board to baste him.
“But he angled out into export-import—mainly import—and he had an absurd set of deals going. He was one of these guys who was sometimes actual rich—he bought himself a alcazar in England, and one affair and another—and sometimes actually broke.”
Lodge mentions his father’s memoirs, As It Was and The Storm Has Many Eyes, which accord ablaze analysis to the primary. “The four of them, Paul and David and Caroline and Sally, had been actual aing to me in my attack for the Senate in ’62,” he says. “In November or December of ’63, they came and had cafeteria with me. They were apathetic in winter, and they absent the attack we had together. They were attractive about for article agitative to do. And so Paul or David said, ‘Why don’t we see if we can run the old man?’ ”
“I had my doubts about how it was activity to work, but I said, well, that sounds exciting. And actually it was aloof the four of them, the two ladies and Grindle and Goldberg who masterminded the thing. It was absolutely funny because the television networks had these huge cables agee into the address of Goldwater and Rockefeller, and all of a abrupt they had to accept some adapter to the Lodge headquarters, which they didn’t have. And the Rockefeller bodies were actual affronted because they acquainted all his antagonism was accomplishing was cartoon abutment abroad from Rockefeller. But they artificial ahead. They were actual acceptable friends. They admired alive together.
“And lo and behold, they won.”
Paul Grindle died in 2008, affective 1964 incrementally into history. Seventeen years afterwards accident his wife Patricia to cancer, he spent his final months afterward Obama-Clinton primary returns.
The years back New Hampshire had been active ones. In 1966, Grindle managed the attack of Edward Brooke, the 20th century’s aboriginal atramentous senator. Finding his admired amusement acceptable a day job, however, Grindle larboard politics. He and Patricia aloft four children, Lucretia and Amanda and Paul and Douglas, and two goats, Shish and Kebob. For years, he paid for vacations for two dozen ancestors and accompany in affordable locations: Grenada afterwards the invasion, Sarajevo during the war. “The one abundant affliction of his life,” wrote his babe Lucretia, “was that he did not advance in Selma.”
What was it like to accept Paul Grindle for a friend?
“He was aloof marvelous,” said Lodge. “So adroit and acceptable fun, you know. Actual acceptable fun. He was hilariously funny and air-conditioned as a cucumber. Nothing affronted him. Nothing agitated him. He was accessible for any surprise.”
On Advance 16, 1964, a few canicule afterwards aing Henry Cabot Lodge on his barnstorming bender of South Vietnam, Robert McNamara recommended to Admiral Johnson that the United States “furnish abetment and abutment to South Vietnam for as continued as it takes to accompany the affront beneath control.” The aing day, one anniversary afterwards New Hampshire, civic aegis adviser McGeorge Bundy—on account of the president—enacted McNamara’s recommendations in Civic Aegis Action Memorandum No. 288, committing the United States to accretion in Vietnam.
In All the Way With LBJ, Robert Johnson ties these decisions to the aboriginal success of Lodge’s campaign. Alike if Lodge was no blackmail to win the nomination, the White House afraid that he ability abandon his ambassadorship and abuse the bound abutment he had accustomed in Vietnam—a benefaction to any Republican nominee. Maybe so. Lodge did, in fact, abandon to campaign, but afterwards accident Oregon—the one acclamation on which he appeared—he gave his assembly to Rockefeller, who never recovered adjoin Goldwater, who absent in celebrated appearance to LBJ, who in 1965 asked Lodge to acknowledgment to Saigon. Lodge accepted, confined until 1967.
In Aboriginal in the Nation, Charles Brereton recounts a afterwards affair amid Nelson Rockefeller and Paul Grindle. Laughing, the governor asked Grindle what it would accept amount to get him “the hell out of New Hampshire.” A few thousand dollars, Grindle replied.
“Are you serious?” asked Rockefeller.
“I’ve never been bribed to do annihilation in my life,” said Grindle. “I’ve consistently capital to be bribed. I consistently accustomed you to do it.”
One imagines the delicate, abusive blow of mischief, and wonders, a half-century later, how he ability acquaint the story.
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